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Glossary of terms

"." or dot:
The top of the hierarchy in the Domain Name System (DNS).

The top-level domain originally for "commercial" entities. However, any person or organization may register a domain name in .com.

The top-level domain for networks or network-providing entities. However, now any person or organization may now register a domain name in .net.

The top-level domain originally for entities, such as non-profit organizations, that do not fit under any other top-level domains. However, now any person or organization may now register a domain name in .org.

Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC):
The Asian-Pacific Network Information Centre is a regional Internet Registry which allocates Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to individuals/entities which desire such an address in the Asia Pacific Region. It is comprised of national Network Information Centres (NICs) and Internet Service Providers within the Asian-Pacific region.

BIND (Berkley Internet Name Domain):
BIND is an implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols. This is the software that needs to reside on a Domain Name Server to ensure that the Domain Name System works.

A client is normally the computer of the end user.

A cyber-squatter is someone who registers a trademarked domain name space for profit through its eventual sale to the rightful owner(s)

Dispute Policy:
i-DNS.net maintains a Dispute Policy which explains our dispute facilitation role, if any, in situations where two or more different individuals/corporations believe they have rights over the same domain name. The current version of our Dispute Policy can be viewed at: http://www.i-dns.net/dispute.html.

Domain Name:
Domain names are used to identify computers on the Internet. The names serve as easy-to-remember Internet addresses, which are later translated by the Domain Name System (DNS) into the specific numeric addresses (Internet Protocol (IP) numbers) that are required by the network for resolution.

Domain Name System (DNS):
The Domain name system comprises of distributed databases of information that are used to translate domain names into Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. Individual computers/name servers around the world hold a portion of the global database, which is accessible by all computers and users on the Internet.

The process of applying a suitable code to an original message in order to change its form into one which is more advantageous for transmission, storage, reading, etc.

A host is normally the computer that provides services like that of a web server

iBIND (Internationalized BIND):
iBIND is BIND modified to allow for resolution of multilingual domain names, implemented within ISP servers or web-hosting companies.

iClient is a client software/plug-in that resolves multilingual domain names within the end-users computer.

Internationalized Domain Name System (i-DNS):
i-DNS refers to the technology pioneered by i-DNS.net that enables the usage of native-character domain name and e-mail addresses. Compliant with the standards framework promulgated within the Internet Engineering Task Force, i-DNS is a robust and flexible solution designed to complement the core Domain Name System without disruption and retaining the very same hierarchy and delegation behavior.

i-DNS Compatible Server
An i-DNS Compatible Server is one that is patched with our server-side software, allowing its users/subscribers to resolve multilingual domain names without the need for additional Client software.

i-DNS Server
An i-DNS Server is one that resides at the tip of the multilingual domain tree.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA):
The entity that currently oversees registration for various Internet Protocol parameters, such as port numbers, protocol and enterprise numbers, options, codes, and types. The IANA function is currently located at the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California in Marina del Rey, CA. Website: www.iana.org

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF):
A large international community of volunteers, comprising of network designers, engineers, researchers, designers, vendors, and other interested individuals, concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. The IETF aims to resolve technical issues on the Internet and develop common Internet standards and protocols. The majority of the work is undertaken via various topic-specific mailing lists maintained by participants. Website: www.ietf.org

Internet Protocol (IP):
A standard that keeps track of network addresses for different nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognizes incoming messages.

Internet Protocol (IP) Numbers (IP addresses):
A unique, 32-bit numeric identifier used to specify hosts and networks on the Internet. Internet Protocol (IP) numbers are part of a global, standardized scheme for identifying machines that are connected to the Internet.

Internet Service Provider (ISP):
A person, organization, or company that provides Internet connectivity (i.e. access to the Internet) and other ancillary, value-added services, such as web hosting.

A free browser plug-in that enables the use of native language domain names. It runs within Internet Explorer 4.0 and above.

iTLD means top-level domain of the i-DNS as provided by i-DNS.net.

Multilingual Internet Names Consortium (MINC):
A consortium founded in June 2000 through the collaborative efforts of the Asia Pacific Networking Group (APNG), National University of Singapore (NUS), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and members of the Asia Pacific Internet academic, government and business communities. MINC seeks to look into the coordination of multilingual Internet names worldwide and the facilitation of the internationalization of the Internet for the global community. Website: www.minc.org

Multilingual Multi-Registrar System (MLMRS):
MLMRS means the multi-lingual multiple registrar system developed and operated by i-DNS.net comprising software, database and hardware for the registration of second-level domain or third-level domain names in the iTLDs within i-DNS.

Name Server:
A computer which has both the software (BIND) and the data (zone files) required to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

The individual or organization that registers a specific domain name with a registry. The registrant has the right to use that specific domain name for a certain period of time.

Registrar is a party appointed by i-DNS.net to provide services for the registration and renewal of multilingual domain names. A registrar is not an agent of i-DNS.net. See www.i-DNS.net/xxxx for our registrar partner's full listing.

Registrar-in-a-box, RIB:
An ASP-modeled product offering that provides a Registration platform for domain names. RIB enables Registrars and Registrars-to-be to cost-effectively and quickly kick-start their Registrar business.

The process through which individuals and organizations apply for a domain name. Typically, the individual or organization will apply for a specific domain name through one of i-DNS.net's registrars, who will, in turn register the name with i-DNS.net. Assuming the name is not already taken, the applicant submits a valid application and end-user agreement, and pays the appropriate registration fee.

The process through which individuals and organizations extend a domain name's registration for a specified period of time. Typically, the individual or organization will re-register for a specific domain name through one of i-DNS.net's registrar which the domain name was registered before. The re-registration has to be completed by payment of re-registration fee and agreeing to be bound by terms and conditions of existing Service Agreement, including the Domain Name Dispute Policy.

A registry is responsible for delegating Internet addresses such as Internet Protocol (IP) numbers and domain names, and maintains a database of those addresses and the information associated with their delegation. i-DNS.net International is a domain name registry for multi-lingual domain names. NSI is a domain name registry for .com, .net, and .org TLDs. There also exist the ISO 3166 country code registries for the various ccTLDs, such as .fr (for France) and .tw (for Taiwan).

Registry-Registrar Interface Registration Protocol (RRIRP):
RRIRP means the registration procedure that enables the Registrar to transmit applications to i-DNS.net for processing in the MLMRS.

Resolution is the process by which domain names are matched with corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) numbers, using the Domain Name System.

Root is the peak of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Also known as the "dot."

Root server:
A root server can locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top-level domains. The root servers are actually name servers and contain authoritative data for the very top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Currently, there are 13 root servers in the world, most of which are located in the USA.

Second Level Domain:
The second level domain is the next lower level of the hierarchy underneath the top level domains. In a domain name, this is the name that appears immediately to the left of the most right "." In the case of the domain name "www.i-DNS.net", the second level domain is "i-DNS".

Primary (and Secondary) Server:
When applying for a domain name, a registrant must provide the hostname and Internet Protocol (IP) number of the name server that will both contain authoritative data for the name being registered and resolve that domain name to the appropriate IP number. The Primary server is the one that is used first, and the Secondary server is the 'backup' server used if the Primary server does not respond.

It is a layered set of protocols that tie the Internet together.

Third Level Domain:
The third level domain is the next lower level of the hierarchy underneath the second level domains. In a domain name, this is the name that appears immediately to the left of the second-most right "." In the case of the domain name "www.i-DNS.net", the third level domain is "www".

Top-level Domain:
The Top Level Domain (TLD) is the highest level of the hierarchy after the root. In a domain name, this is the name that appears at the end of the domain name. In the case of the domain name "www.i-DNS.net", the top level domain is "net".

A standard aimed at unifying all character sets into a single character table. Each Unicode character is 16-bit wide, as opposed to the ASCII standard of 8-bit.

Uniform Transformation Format (UTF-5/UTF-8):
A transformation method to convert otherwise unacceptable non-ASCII characters frequently used in internationalized systems into ASCII characters.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL):
The address of an item (page, graphic, database field, etc.) on the web. For example, www.i-DNS.net is a URL for i-DNS.net's homepage on the Internet.

The Whois function on i-DNS.net's searchable registry allows a potential registrant to check if a domain name has been registered, and by which registrar.

Zone File:
A file that contains data describing a portion of the domain name space. Zone files contain the critical information that map domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

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